EIR Accessibility Policy, Appendix A - Glossary

abbreviation
Shortened form of a word, phrase, or name where the abbreviation has not become part of the language.
accessibility subject matter expert
Program or team member designated to learn and understand the accessibility requirements for all ICT created, purchased, or managed by their work area.
alternative for time-based media
Document including correctly sequenced text descriptions of time-based visual and auditory information and providing a means for achieving the outcomes of any time-based interaction.

Note: A screenplay used to create the synchronized media content would meet this definition only if it was corrected to accurately represent the final synchronized media after editing.

ambiguous to users in general
The purpose cannot be determined from the link and all information of the Web page presented to the user simultaneously with the link (i.e., readers without disabilities would not know what a link would do until they activated it).

Example: Imagine the word guava in the following sentence is a link: "One of the notable exports is guava." This link could lead to various types of information—for example, a definition of guava, a chart listing the quantity of guava exported, or a photograph of people harvesting guava. Regardless of whether the user has a disability, the only way to find out the type of information is to follow the link. Therefore, a person with a disability is not at any disadvantage.

assistive technology
Hardware and/or software that acts as a user agent, or along with a mainstream user agent, to provide functionality to meet the requirements of users with disabilities that go beyond those offered by mainstream user agents.
audio
The technology of sound reproduction.

Note: Audio can be created synthetically (including speech synthesis), recorded from real world sounds, or both.

Narration added to the soundtrack to describe important visual details that cannot be understood from the main soundtrack alone.
audio-only
A time-based presentation that contains only audio (no video and no interaction).
blinking
Switch back and forth between two visual states in a way that is meant to draw attention.

Note: See also flash. It is possible for something to be large enough and blink brightly enough at the right frequency to be also classified as a flash.

blocks of text
More than one sentence of text.
CAPTCHA
Acronym for "Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart."
captions
Synchronized visual and/or text alternative for both speech and non-speech audio information needed to understand the media content.
changes of context
Major changes in the content of the Web page that, if made without user awareness, can disorient users who are not able to view the entire page simultaneously. Changes in context include changes of: user agent, viewport, focus, or content that changes the meaning of the Web page.

Note: A change of content is not always a change of context. Changes in content, such as an expanding outline, dynamic menu, or a tab control do not necessarily change the context, unless they also change one of the above (e.g., focus).

conformance
Satisfying all the requirements of a given standard, guideline or specification.
content (Web content)
Information and sensory experience to be communicated to the user by means of a user agent, including code or markup that defines the content’s structure, presentation, and interactions.
contrast ratio
(L1 + 0.05) / (L2 + 0.05), where L1 is the relative luminance of the lighter of the colors, and L2 is the relative luminance of the darker of the colors.

Note: Contrast ratios can range from 1 to 21 (commonly written 1:1 to 21:1).

correct reading sequence
Any sequence where words and paragraphs are presented in an order that does not change the meaning of the content.
essential
If removed, would fundamentally change the information or functionality of the content, and information and functionality cannot be achieved in another way that would conform.
flash
A pair of opposing changes in relative luminance that can cause seizures in some people if it is large enough and in the right frequency range (not to be confused with Flash, the Adobe software).
functionality
Processes and outcomes achievable through user action.
general flash and red flash thresholds
A flash or rapidly changing image sequence is below the threshold if there are no more than three general flashes and/or no more than three red flashes within any one-second period; or the combined area of flashes occurring concurrently occupies no more than a total of .006 steradians within any 10 degree visual field on the screen (25% of any 10 degree visual field on the screen) at typical viewing distance.
human language
Language that is spoken, written or signed (through visual or tactile means) to communicate with humans.
ICT
Information and communication technology. New term for EIR, electronic information resources, which is still used in 1 TAC 213. Any software, equipment, or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment used to create, convert, duplicate, or deliver data or information. Includes telecommunications products (such as telephones), information kiosks and transaction machines, websites, multimedia, and office equipment, such as copiers and fax machines.
image of text
Text that has been rendered in a non-text form (e.g., an image) in order to achieve a particular visual effect.

Note: This does not include text that is part of a picture that contains significant other visual content.

Example: A person’s name on a nametag in a photograph.

input error
Information provided by the user that is not accepted.
keyboard interface
interface used by software to obtain keystroke input.

Note: A keyboard interface allows users to provide keystroke input to programs even if the native technology does not contain a keyboard.

Example: A touchscreen PDA has a keyboard interface built into its operating system as well as a connector for external keyboards. Applications on the PDA can use the interface to obtain keyboard input either from an external keyboard or from other applications that provide simulated keyboard output, such as handwriting interpreters or speech-to-text applications with "keyboard emulation" functionality.

label
Text or other component with a text alternative that is presented to a user to identify a component within Web content.
large-scale (text)
Text with at least 18 point font size or 14 point bold font size.
legal commitments
Transactions where the person incurs a legally binding obligation or benefit.

Example: A marriage license, a stock trade (financial and legal), a will, a loan, adoption, signing up for the army, a contract of any type, etc.

link purpose
Nature of the result obtained by activating a hyperlink.
live
Information captured from a real-world event and transmitted to the receiver with no more than a broadcast delay.

Note: A broadcast delay is a short (usually automated) delay, for example used in order to give the broadcaster time to queue or censor the audio (or video) feed, but not sufficient to allow significant editing. If information is completely computer generated, it is not live.

mechanism
Process or technique for achieving a result.
media alternative for text
Media that presents no more information than is already presented in text (directly or via text alternatives).
name
Text by which software can identify a component within Web content to the user.
navigated sequentially
Navigated in the order defined for advancing focus (from one element to the next) using a keyboard interface.
non-text content
Any content that is not a sequence of characters that can be programmatically determined or where the sequence is not expressing something in human language.

Note: This includes ASCII art (which is a pattern of characters), emoticons, leetspeak (which uses character substitution), and images representing text.

paused
Stopped by user request and not resumed until requested by user.
prerecorded
Information that is not live.
presentation
Rendering of the content in a form to be perceived by users.
process
Series of user actions where each action is required in order to complete an activity.
programmatically determined (programmatically determinable)
Determined by software from author-supplied data provided in a way that different user agents, including assistive technologies, can extract and present this information to users in different modalities.
programmatically determined link context
Additional information that can be programmatically determined from relationships with a link, combined with the link text, and presented to users in different modalities.

Example: In HTML, information that is programmatically determinable from a link in English includes text that is in the same paragraph, list, or table cell as the link or in a table header cell that is associated with the table cell that contains the link.

Note: Since screen readers interpret punctuation, they can also provide the context from the current sentence, when the focus is on a link in that sentence.

programmatically set
Set by software using methods that are supported by user agents, including assistive technologies.
pure decoration
Serving only an aesthetic purpose, providing no information, and having no functionality.

Note: Text is only purely decorative if the words can be rearranged or substituted without changing their purpose.

Example: The cover page of a dictionary has random words in very light text in the background.

real-time event
Event that (a) occurs at the same time as the viewing and (b) is not completely generated by the content.
relationships
Meaningful associations between distinct pieces of content.
role
Text or number by which software can identify the function of a component within Web content.

Example: A number that indicates whether an image functions as a hyperlink, command button, or check box.

same functionality
Same result when used.

Example: A submit "search" button on one Web page and a "find" button on another Web page may both have a field to enter a term and list topics in the Web site related to the term submitted. In this case, they would have the same functionality but would not be labeled consistently.

same relative order
Same position relative to other items.
section
A self-contained portion of written content that deals with one or more related topics or thoughts.

Note: A section may consist of one or more paragraphs and include graphics, tables, lists and sub-sections.

set of Web pages
Collection of Web pages that share a common purpose and that are created by the same author, group or organization.

Note: Different language versions would be considered different sets of Web pages.

sign language
A language using combinations of movements of the hands and arms, facial expressions, or body positions to convey meaning.
specific sensory experience
A sensory experience that is not purely decorative and does not primarily convey important information or perform a function.

Example: Examples include a performance of a flute solo, works of visual art, etc.

structure
The way the parts of a Web page are organized in relation to each other; and the way a collection of Web pages is organized.
synchronized media
Audio or video synchronized with another format for presenting information and/or with time-based interactive components, unless the media is a media alternative for text that is clearly labeled as such.
technology (Web content)
Mechanism for encoding instructions to be rendered, played or executed by user agents.

Example: Some common examples of Web content technologies include HTML, CSS, SVG, PNG, PDF, Adobe Flash, and JavaScript.

text
Sequence of characters that can be programmatically determined, where the sequence is expressing something in human language.
text alternative
Text that is programmatically associated with non-text content or referred to from text that is programmatically associated with non-text content. Programmatically associated text is text whose location can be programmatically determined from the non-text content.
user agent
Any software that retrieves and presents digital content for users.

Example: Web browsers, media players, plug-ins, and other programs — including assistive technologies — that help in retrieving, rendering, and interacting with Web content.

user-controllable
Data that is intended to be accessed by users.

Note: This does not refer to such things as Internet logs and search engine monitoring data.

Example: Name and address fields for a user’s account.

user interface component
A part of the content that is perceived by users as a single control for a distinct function.
video
The technology of moving or sequenced pictures or images.
video-only
A time-based presentation that contains only video (no audio and no interaction).
viewport
Object in which the user agent presents content.
visually customized
The font, size, color, and background can be set.
VPAT®
Voluntary Product Accessibility Template. One acceptable form of vendor-supplied documentation. Using the required template, the vendor tells whether their product or service conforms to the Section 508 Standards. The vendor may give "Yes/No" answers, or they may add qualifying statements, detailed explanations, or both.
Web page
A non-embedded resource obtained from a single URI using HTTP plus any other resources that are used in the rendering or intended to be rendered together with it by a user agent.